Erythrovirus, Parvovirus B19 Infection, Chronic With Severe Anemia
Understanding Parvovirus B19
Parvovirus B19 spreads through respiratory secretions (such as saliva, sputum, or nasal mucus) when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Parvovirus B19 can also spread through blood or blood products. A pregnant woman who is infected with parvovirus B19 can pass the virus to her baby.
In parts of the world with changing seasons, people tend to get infected with parvovirus B19 more often in late winter, spring, and early summer. Local outbreaks of parvovirus B19 infection occur about every 3 to 4 years.
Pet dogs and cats can get infected with other parvoviruses that do not infect humans. Pets can be vaccinated to protect them from parvovirus infection.
Since parvovirus B19 only infects humans, a person cannot get the virus from a dog or cat. Also, dogs and cats cannot get parvovirus B19 from an infected person.
Symptoms of Parvovirus B19
Parvovirus B19 most commonly causes fifth disease, a mild rash illness that usually affects children.
Other much less common symptoms of parvovirus B19 infection include painful or swollen joints (polyarthropathy syndrome), which is more common in adults, and severe anemia (a condition in which the body doesn't have enough healthy red blood cells). In rare cases, some of these symptoms can persist for a long time.
Diagnosis of Parvovirus B19
A blood test can be done to determine if you are susceptible or immune to parvovirus B19 infection or if you were recently infected. The blood test may be particularly helpful for pregnant women who may have been exposed to parvovirus B19 and are suspected to have fifth disease.
Blood tests, imaging test and a biopsy of affected tissue are also typically performed to help determine the criteria are met.
Treatment of Parvovirus B19
Treatment may include the following:
- Acetaminophen or ibuprofen is effective for treating fever.
- Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been used for patients suffering pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). IVIG is not recommended for TAC.
- In patients receiving immunosuppressive agents, temporarily decreasing the dose of immunosuppressive agents usually enables the immune system to produce sufficient immunoglobulin G (IgG) to eradicate the infection and confer lifelong protection. In some individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, highly active antiretroviral therapy restores immune function, enabling resolution of chronic parvovirus B19 infection.
This content is not intended to substitute professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
At Nufactor, we are committed to providing our patients the education, support and resources necessary to complete your IVIG treatment successfully and with the desired outcomes. Please contact us with any further questions.