Desensitization (Solid Organ Transplant)
Understanding Desensitization (Solid Organ Transplant)
Prior to transplantation, testing is necessary to determine if the recipient of the organ has human leukocyte antigen (HLA) sensitization. HLA sensitization means the recipient has HLA antibodies which will increase the risk of rejecting the transplanted organ. HLA antibodies are acquired via pregnancy, transfusion, or prior transplant. Desensitization is the process of decreasing antibodies the organ recipient may have that increases the risk of rejection after transplant.
Symptoms of Desensitization (Solid Organ Transplant)
There are no symptoms, rather just a need to assess for HLA antibodies and provide treatment to minimize these antibodies prior to transplant.
Diagnosis of Desensitization (Solid Organ Transplant)
Diagnosis is based on the presence of HLA antibodies prior to transplant. This includes a blood test called a Panel Reactive Antibodies (PRA). This test measures the amount of HLA antibodies an organ recipient may have. A PRA result may range from zero to 100% and tests organ recipient cells against various samples of other people. Zero means there are no alloantibodies, and the risk of rejection goes down; 100% means the recipient would react with 100% of any potential donors and, therefore, significantly decreases the chance of a successful transplant. Anyone with a PRA of 20% is considered highly sensitized and is a candidate for desensitization therapy. Having a PRA greater than 20% can have a significant impact on wait times for a compatible donor.
Treatment of Desensitization (Solid Organ Transplant)
Desensitization therapy may vary depending on the transplant center, and may involve steroids, plasma exchange or pheresis, immune globulin therapy and/or other drugs. Immune globulin therapy, administered into the blood stream intravenously (IVIG), is used to suppress the immune response and is known as immunomodulation. The mechanism of action of IVIG in this manner is not clearly understood. IVIG is essentially antibodies from a variety of human donors. This large variety of antibodies is thought to suppress the immune response, thereby decreasing alloantibody production and ultimately lowering PRA levels.
Resources for people undergoing a kidney transplant:
- National Kidney Foundation
- United Network for Organ Sharing
- Transplant Living, a division of UNOS
- Kidney School
The information provided on this website is not medical advice, nor is it intended to be a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, and treatment. Always seek the advice of a physician or other qualified health provider with questions concerning a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice, or delay seeking it based on information provided on this website.